Press-releases

Corruption

This survey took place between 2-6 March 2017 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 1600 people over the age of 18 in 137 localities of 48 of the country’s regions. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the number of participants.

The statistical error of these studies for a selection of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:

                3.4% for indicators around 50%

                2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%

                2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%

                1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%

Data over time

Table 1 IN THE PAST THREE YEARS, HAVE YOU, YOUR CLOSE FRIENDS, OR RELATIVES HAD OCCASION TO…(multiple answers; arranged according to latest survey)

Jul. 00 Feb. 05 Jan. 07 Apr. 10 Jan. 12 Jan. 13 Feb. 15 Feb. 16 Mar. 17
Get a job 34 36 33 24 36 35 33 30 29
Spend time in the hospital 34 37 31 34 32 30 32 25 26
Get important documents from local authorities 24 19 14 18 17 16 22 19
Get a driver’s license/register an automobile/get an automobile inspected 13 18 15 13 17 16 16 19 14
Violate the rules of the road and be detained by traffic police 9 13 14 13 15 14 13 15 14
Put a child in school 12 11 10 9 13 12 14 14 12
Arrange a funeral -* 21 17 10 14 12 14 10 10
Arrange rights to an apartment, housing 4 14 15 13 13 10 10 10 10
Apply to an institute 12 18 15 10 12 10 12 10 8
Obtain registration/residence permit 6 14 9 6 9 7 7 9 8
Speak with military enlistment offices regarding conscription 9 12 10 6 9 7 6 5 5
Pay your company’s taxes/file a tax return for your company 3 3 4 2 4 3 3 3 4
Get a building permit/permission to purchase land 4 4 5 2 4 3 3 4 3
Get important documents from government ministries/offices 4 3 2 4 3 3 4 3
Go through criminal proceedings in court 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1
Register a company/obtain or renew permits, licenses 2 3 3 1 3 1 1 2 1
Be prosecuted/under investigation 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1
Clear goods through customs 1 1 1 <1 1 1 1 1 1
None of the above 36 25 33 35 30 32 32 33 38

*Option was not included in the list of possible answers.

Table 2 IN THE PAST THREE YEARS, HAVE YOU, YOUR CLOSE FRIENDS, OR RELATIVES HAD OCCASION TO GIVE OR BE SOLICITED FOR BRIBES, GIFTS, OR OTHER SERVICES WHEN YOU HAD TO… (multiple answers; arranged according to latest survey)

Jul. 00 Feb. 05 Jan. 07 Apr. 10 Jan. 12 Jan. 13 Feb. 15 Feb. 16 Mar. 17
Spend time in the hospital 13 8 9 10 9 10 9 7 9
Violate the rules of the road and be detained by traffic police 6 8 8 8 9 7 6 7 6
Get a driver’s license/register an automobile/get an automobile inspected 3 5 4 6 5 5 6 6 5
Put a child in school 3 2 1 3 3 2 2 2 3
Apply to an institute 5 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 2
Get important documents from local authorities 4 3 3 2 2 2 3 2
Get a job 6 3 2 4 3 2 3 2 2
Arrange a funeral 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 2
Obtain registration/residence permit 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Arrange rights to an apartment, housing 1 2 3 3 2 1 1 2 1
Speak with military enlistment offices regarding conscription 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
Get a building permit/permission to purchase land 1 1 2 <1 1 1 1 1 1
Register a company/obtain or renew permits, licenses 1 1 1 1 <1 <1 <1 1 1
Get important documents from government ministries/offices 1 1 1 1 <1 1 1 1
Go through criminal proceedings in court 1 <1 1 1 <1 <1 <1 1
Pay your company’s taxes/file a tax return for your company 1 <1 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 1
Clear goods through customs 1 <1 <1 <1 1 1 <1 <1 1
Be prosecuted/under investigation 1 <1 1 1 <1 1 <1 <1 <1
None of the above 73 76 76 69 73 75 76 77 78

Table 3. Share of respondents who in the past three years have had occasion to give a bribe or render a service during interaction with the given institution/in the given situation (arranged by frequency of corruption)

Jan. 13 Feb. 15 Feb. 16 Mar. 17
Violate the rules of the road and be detained by traffic police 47 43 48 42
Get a driver’s license/register an automobile/get an automobile inspected 32 34 28 31
Spend time in the hospital 33 24 27 31
Put a child in school 20 10 12 15
Get important documents from local authorities 11 12 10 9
Get a job 7 8 6 6

Table 3 provides only those government bodies/institutions with which no less than 12% of respondents have interacted within the last 3 years (see Table 1).

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS SOLVING DAY-TO-DAY ISSUES WITH THE HELP OF BRIBES?

Feb. 16 Mar. 17
I think it’s sometimes necessary 10 10
I think it can be tolerated 10 10
I do not think it can be tolerated 31 28
I think it’s totally unacceptable 44 46
It is difficult to say 6 6

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS CORRUPTION IN THE GOVERNMENT?

Feb. 16 Mar. 17
I think it’s sometimes necessary 1 2
I think it can be tolerated 4 3
I do not think it can be tolerated 27 24
I think it’s totally unacceptable 62 65
It is difficult to say 6 6

WHO DO YOU THINK IS MORE TO BLAME – THOSE WHO TAKE BRIBES, THOSE WHO GIVE BRIBES, OR BOTH EQUALLY?

Feb. 05 Jan. 07 Feb. 15 Mar. 17
Those who take bribes 35 34 31 31
Those who give bribes 9 9 8 9
Both equally 53 55 59 58
It is difficult to say 4 3 3 3

TO WHAT EXTENT DO YOU THINK THE GOVERNMENT OF RUSSIA IS AFFECTED BY CORRUPTION?

Feb. 16 Mar. 17
Corruption has fully permeated the Russian government from top to bottom 25 32
Corruption has significantly taken hold in the Russian government 51 47
Corruption is present in the Russian government, but it is insignificant 13 13
There is almost no corruption in the Russian government 1 1
It is difficult to say 10 7

DO YOU THINK THAT THERE IS MORE, LESS, OR APPROXIMATELY THE SAME AMOUNT OF STEALING AND CORRUPTION IN THE COUNTRY’S LEADERSHIP TODAY AS COMPARED TO THE EARLY 2000S?

Mar. 15 Feb. 16 Mar. 17
More 30 32 31
Approximately the same amount 46 47 43
Less 13 11 15
It is difficult to say 11 10 12

DO YOU THINK THAT THERE HAS BEEN MORE, LESS, OR APPROXIMATELY THE SAME AMOUNT OF STEALING AND CORRUPTION IN THE COUNTRY’S LEADERSHIP SINCE VLADIMIR PUTIN’S RETURN AS PRESIDENT OF RUSSIA?*

  Mar. 01 May 03 Dec. 06 Apr. 12 Apr. 14
More 11 16 14 9 11
Approximately the same amount 62 58 54 57 64
Less 18 16 26 26 17
It is difficult to say 10 10 7 9 9

 * In 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2012, the question was given in the following form: “IN YOUR OPINION, SINCE VLADIMIR PUTIN’S ELECTION AS PRESIDENT OF RUSSIA…”

IN YOUR OPINION, DOES VLADIMIR PUTIN BEAR RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE SCALE OF HIGH-LEVEL GOVERNMENT CORRUPTION AND FINANCIAL ABUSE WHICH ARE FREQUENTLY CITED BY HIS OPPONENTS?

Mar. 13 Apr. 14 May 15 Feb. 16 Mar.17
Fully 39 36 37 26 25
In large part 34 42 43 40 42
Only partly 15 14 14 21 20
He could not be responsible for all this 6 5 3 9 9
It is difficult to say 6 3 3 5 4

WITH WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS REGARDING CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA WOULD YOU MOST AGREE?

Mar. 12 Nov. 12 Apr. 13 Apr. 14 Sept. 14 May 15 Feb. 16 Mar. 17
Putin’s war on corruption can be successful by cleaning out high-level officials and toughening punishment for related crimes 27 27 20 27 26 31 25 27
Putin will attempt to fight corruption but real success is unlikely, as corruption in Russia is incurable 35 35 35 43 38 42 44 45
Combatting corruption will be problematic for Putin, as he himself in large part depends on corrupt officials 15 21 21 17 19 16 19 17
Putin will not seriously attempt to fight corruption because he himself in one way or another is invested in it 15 12 17 9 8 8 7 6
It is difficult to say 8 6 7 5 9 4 6 5

DO YOU THINK THAT CORRUPTION, BRIBERY IN RUSSIA CAN BE FULLY ERADICATED OR AT LEAST SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED, OR DO YOU BELIEVE THAT NOTHING CAN BE DONE ABOUT THIS “SOCIAL EVIL”?

Jul. 00 Feb. 16 Mar. 17
Corruption and bribery can be fully eradicated 12 15 16
The extent of corruption and bribery can be significantly reduced 52 56 58
Nothing can be done about this “social evil” 29 24 21
It is difficult to say 8 6 5

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly  Monterey Institute of International Studies).

ANO Levada Center has been included in the register of noncommercial organizations acting as foreign agents. See the Director of the Levada Center’s statement of disagreement with this decision here.