Press-releases

THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION

This survey took place between 2-6 March 2017 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 1600 people over the age of 18 in 137 localities of 48 of the country’s regions. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the number of participants along with data from previous surveys.

The statistical error of these studies for a selection of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:

                3.4% for indicators around 50%

                2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%

                2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%

                1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%

SOME ARGUE THAT RUSSIA NEEDS TO MOVE FORWARD AND NOT DWELL ON WHAT HAPPENED IN 1917. OTHERS SAY THAT RUSSIA NEEDS TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THE PERIOD, IN ORDER TO AVOID REPEATING ITS MISTAKES. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS MOST ACCURATELY EXPRESSES YOUR OWN POINT OF VIEW? (one response)

  Mar. 17
Russia needs to move forward and not dwell on what happened in 1917 34
Russia needs to learn more about the period, in order to avoid repeating its mistakes 44
Studying the past is not harmful, but is not relevant to Russia’s present needs 20
It is difficult to say 3

THE 100TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION IS APPROACHING. DO YOU THINK IT WAS INEVITABLE OR COULD IT HAVE BEEN AVOIDED?

  Apr. 06 Mar. 17
It was inevitable 53 48
It could have been avoided 31 32
It is difficult to say 15 21

IN YOUR OPINION, WHAT LED TO THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION? (respondents were presented with a CARD; multiple answers)

  Oct. 90 Oct. 97 Nov. 01 Oct. 07 Oct. 11 Mar. 17
The plight of workers 66 57 60 57 53 50
Government weakness 36 40 39 35 34 45
The extremism of political opportunists 16 14 15 17 15 19
Spontaneous mob agression 15 15 14 12 15 15
A plot by enemies of the Russian people 6 11 11 13 12 20
Other 2 1 <1 1 2 2
It is difficult to say 12 11 9 9 12 7

DO YOU THINK THAT THE BOLSHEVIKS’ RISE TO POWER IN 1917 WAS LEGAL?

  Nov. 03 Mar. 17
Definitely 22 9
Probably 20 26
Probably not 22 31
Definitely not 17 14
It is difficult to say 19 19

DO YOU THINK THAT THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION PLAYED A POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ROLE IN RUSSIA’S HISTORY?

  Nov. 96 Oct. 99 Oct. 00 Mar. 14 Mar. 17
Very positive 19 18 17 8 10
Mostly positive 28 28 32 40 38
Mostly negative 21 25 22 22 25
Very negative 12 10 13 6 6
It is difficult to say 21 20 17 24 21

WITH WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING OPINIONS REGARDING THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION’S MEANING TO THE PEOPLES OF RUSSIA WOULD YOU MOST LIKELY AGREE?

  Oct. 90 Oct. 97 Nov. 01 Oct. 02 Oct. 03 Oct. 04 Oct. 05 Oct. 06 Oct. 07 Oct. 09 Oct. 10 Oct. 11 Mar. 17
It opened a new era in the history of the peoples of Russia 22 23 27 27 20 30 26 30 24 28 29 25 25
It spurred their social and economic development 24 26 32 33 32 27 31 28 31 29 29 27 36
It stalled their development 19 19 18 19 19 16 16 16 17 16 14 19 21
It was a catastrophe for them 13 16 12 9 14 14 15 10 9 10 9 8 6
It is difficult to say 22 17 11 13 15 13 13 17 19 17 19 21 13

SOME ARE OF THE OPINION THAT PRIOR TO 1917 RUSSIA HAD BEEN DEVELOPING ACCORDING TO ITS OWN INDIGENOUS TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS. DO YOU THINK THAT RUSSIA CONTINUED TO DEVELOP IN KEEPING WITH ITS OWN TRADITIONS AND NATIONAL VALUES AFTER THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION OF 1917, OR DID IT TURN DOWN A DIFFERENT PATH, ONE ALIEN TO RUSSIA?

  Dec. 98 Mar. 17
Russia continued to develop in keeping with its own traditions and national values 27 50
Russia turned down a different path, one alien to it 46 35
It is difficult to say 28 15

DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE THAT THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION…

CAUSED SERIOUS HARM TO RUSSIAN CULTURE?

  Oct. 90 Mar. 17
Agree 69 49
Disagree 17 41
It is difficult to say 14 10

CAUSED SERIOUS HARM TO RUSSIAN PEASANTS?

  Oct. 90 Mar. 17
Agree 68 48
Disagree 20 42
It is difficult to say 12 10

CAUSED SERIOUS HARM TO RELIGION AND THE CHURCH?

  Oct. 90 Mar. 17
Agree 85 69
Disagree 6 19
It is difficult to say 9 12

HOW GREAT A LOSS TO RUSSIA WAS THE OVERTHROW OF AUTOCRACY?

  Oct. 90 Mar. 17
Very great 11 34
Not very great 56 52
It is difficult to say 33 13

HOW GREAT A LOSS TO RUSSIA WAS THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE NOBILITY?

  Oct. 90 Mar. 17
Very great 30 42
Not very great 45 45
It is difficult to say 25 14

WHAT DO YOU THINK WOULD HAVE HAPPENED TO RUSSIA IF THE BOLSHEVIKS HAD BEEN UNABLE TO SEIZE/MAINTAIN POWER IN 1917?

  Oct. 02 Mar. 17
The Romanov monarchy would have been restored 22 19
Some other extremists, opportunists would have seized power and caused even more damage for the people 26 32
The country would have developed along the Western democratic model 22 16
Russia would have disintegrated and lost its independence 14 14
It is difficult to say 16 20

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REVOLUTION-ERA FIGURES DO YOU LIKE THE MOST? (respondents were presented with a CARD; multiple answers)

  Oct. 90 Oct. 97 Oct. 02 Oct. 07 Mar.17
Lenin 67 28 36 27 26
Stalin 8 15 22 15 24
Dzerzhinsky 45 25 28 21 16
Nicholas II 4 17 18 11 16
Kolchak 3 8 8 7 10
Bukharin 21 13 9 7 4
Trotsky 15 5 8 4 3
Kerensky 3 4 4 3 2
Makhno 8 3 4 6 2
Milyukov 2 1 1 1 1
It is difficult to say 12 26 19 37 38

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REVOLUTION-ERA FIGURES DO YOU DISLIKE THE MOST? (respondents were presented with a CARD; multiple answers)

  Oct. 90 Oct. 97 Oct. 02 Oct. 07 Mar.17
Stalin 49 36 30 29 21
Makhno 19 22 26 11 21
Trotsky 10 13 10 13 17
Lenin 5 12 11 11 13
Kerensky 19 12 10 8 9
Kolchak 22 12 15 9 7
Dzerzhinsky 4 6 6 7 6
Nicholas II 10 7 6 4 5
Bukharin 3 4 3 3 5
Milyukov 5 3 3 2 3
It is difficult to say 25 25 26 42 39

IMAGINE THAT THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION WERE HAPPENING IN FRONT OF YOUR EYES; WHAT WOULD YOU DO? (one answer)

  Oct. 90 Oct. 97 Nov. 01 Oct. 02 Oct. 03 Oct. 04 Oct. 05 Oct. 07 Oct. 11 Mar. 17
Actively support the Bolsheviks 23 15 22 23 19 15 17 17 14 12
Cooperate with the Bolsheviks to some degree 26 16 19 20 16 18 17 13 17 16
Attempt to survive, without taking part in events 12 27 24 28 22 26 28 23 24 33
Fight against the Bolsheviks 5 7 6 8 9 8 7 6 6 8
Leave the country 7 15 13 16 14 15 14 18 14 14
It is difficult to say/Other 27 20 16 5 21 19 17 24 25 18

IF YOU COULD START YOUR LIFE OVER, WHEN WOULD YOU LIKE TO HAVE LIVED? (one answer)

  Oct. 02 Mar. 17
Prior to 1917 in Russia 5 4
During Stalin’s five-year plans 3 4
During the Khrushchev “thaw” 3 6
Under Brezhnev 39 28
During perestroika and the beginning of economic reforms 3 3
Now, under President Putin 23 33
I would prefer to live in a different country 17 11
It is difficult to say 8 11

DO YOU THINK THAT EVENTS SIMILAR TO THOSE OF 1917 COULD REPEAT THEMSELVES IN TODAY’S RUSSIA?

  Oct. 98 Mar. 17
Definitely 7 7
Probably 27 21
Probably not 34 38
Definitely not 20 21
It is difficult to say 12 14

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly  Monterey Institute of International Studies).

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