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Russia’s Friends and Enemies

This survey took place between 20 and 23 May 2016 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 1600/800 people over the age of 18 in 137 localities of 48 of the country’s regions.  The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the number of participants along with data from previous surveys. The statistical error of these studies does not exceed 3.4%.

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD THE UNITED STATES IN GENERAL?

2014 2015 2016
V I III V VII IX XI I III V
Very positive 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 1
Mostly positive 15 11 17 14 16 19 19 21 23 18
Mostly negative 40 42 38 41 39 41 46 39 42 47
Very negative 31 39 35 32 31 27 24 26 22 23
It is difficult to say 11 7 8 12 11 12 10 13 10 11

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD THE EUROPEAN UNION IN GENERAL?

 

 

2014 2015 2016
V I III V VII IX XI I III V
Very positive 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2 1
Mostly positive 22 18 23 24 23 23 26 26 26 24
Mostly negative 38 43 38 38 41 39 45 39 41 46
Very negative 22 28 26 21 21 21 15 19 19 16
It is difficult to say 15 9 11 16 13 14 11 14 12 14

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD UKRAINE IN GENERAL?

2014 2015 2016
V I III V VII IX XI I III V
Very positive 5 4 3 3 3 4 2 2 2 2
Mostly positive 30 20 29 23 25 29 25 26 23 24
Mostly negative 33 36 34 36 39 36 42 37 42 45
Very negative 16 28 21 23 21 20 21 22 22 18
It is difficult to say 17 13 13 14 11 11 10 14 11 12

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD BELARUS IN GENERAL?

2014 2015 2016
V I III V VII IX XI I III V
Very positive 21 19 22 29 22 23 19 18 21 22
Mostly positive 64 62 63 54 62 61 64 63 65 61
Mostly negative 5 8 5 5 7 5 6 9 5 6
Very negative 1 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2
It is difficult to say 9 8 7 9 8 8 9 8 7 9

NAME FIVE COUNTRIES THAT YOU WOULD CALL RUSSIA’S CLOSEST FRIENDS OR ALLIES (multiple answers; answers arranged according to last survey)

2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Belarus 47 38 50 49 35 34 46 51 55 50
Kazakhstan 33 39 38 32 33 28 31 37 41 39
China 24 19 18 16 18 16 20 40 43 34
India 15 14 12 14 16 9 7 13 18 18
Armenia 14 15 15 15 11 11 12 15 18 13
Cuba 8 11 10 13 8 9 10 14 10
Syria 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 10
Uzbekistan 6 6 9 5 7 5 5 6 8 9
Azerbaijan 7 5 10 8 9 9 8 9 11 7
Kyrgyzstan 7 7 9 4 6 5 5 6 10 7
Venezuela 2 8 10 6 5 6 5 9 6
Serbia 4 3 5 5 4 4 3 5 8 6
Tajikistan 3 7 9 4 5 4 5 8 7 6
Japan 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 2 5
Bulgaria 10 9 9 8 9 7 10 8 4 4
Mongolia 3 5 4 5 2 3 3 6 3
Egypt 1 2 2 2 5 2 2 2 4 3
North Korea 3 2 1 2 4 1 1 3 3 3
Israel 3 3 3 4 5 4 3 4 2 3
Italy 7 8 5 8 6 7 5 3 1 3
Georgia 3 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 2
Germany 22 24 17 24 20 17 14 4 2 2
Iran 4 3 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2
Moldova 4 4 5 5 4 4 6 7 2 2
Brazil 5
Greece 4
Vietnam 4
Bulgaria 10 9 9 8 9 7 10 8 4 4
Spain 2
Turkmenistan 2 8 5 1 3 2 2 3 4 2
Czech Republic 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 1 3 2
Finland 6 6 5 5 7 6 4 3 1 1
France 8 9 9 11 9 9 4 1 1 2
South Korea 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 1
Ukraine 10 11 3 20 21 13 16 1 1 2
Slovakia, Afghanistan, Iraq, USA, Austria, Great Britain, Poland, Turkey, Australia, Netherlands, South Africa, Hungary, Switzerland, Sweden (in May, 2016 each country received 0.5-1%) 10
Canada, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and others (in May, 2016 each country received less than 1%) 2
None 13 10 13 11 11 17 15 13 11 14
It is difficult to say 15 18 14 12 15 18 14 16 14 11

WHICH FIVE COUNTRIES WOULD YOU SAY ARE THE MOST UNFRIENDLY OR HOSTILE TOWARDS RUSSIA? (multiple answers; answers arranged according to last survey)

2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
USA 37 35 45 26 33 35 38 69 73 72
Ukraine 27 23 41 13 20 15 11 30 37 48
Turkey 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 29
Poland 7 20 10 14 20 8 8 12 22 24
Latvia 46 36 35 36 35 26 21 23 25 23
Lithuania 42 32 35 35 34 25 17 24 25 23
Germany 2 2 3 1 4 3 3 18 19 19
Great Britain 5 3 8 6 8 7 9 18 21 18
Estonia 28 60 30 28 30 23 16 21 19 16
Georgia 44 46 62 57 50 41 33 19 11 10
Canada 1 <1 1 <1 1 1 1 7 8 6
Japan 4 3 3 3 9 6 7 5 6 5
France 1 1 1 <1 1 1 2 5 7 4
Egypt <1 <1 <1 <1 1 1 2 1 <1 3
Finland 1 <1 1 <1 1 1 1 1 2 3
Syria <1 <1 <1 <1 1 2 3 1 1 3
Afghanistan 12 11 7 14 15 8 10 5 4 2
Romania 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 3 2
Australia <1 <1 <1 <1 1 <1 <1 1 3 2
Moldova 9 3 1 2 3 2 1 1 3 2
Israel 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 2
Iran 7 7 3 7 7 7 5 2 2 2
Iraq 9 8 5 9 9 8 7 3 2 2
Saudi Arabia 1 <1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2
Azerbaijan 4 4 2 3 5 2 3 2 1 2
Austria 1
Switzerland 1
Netherlands 1
Sweden <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 1 <1 1 1 1
Bulgaria 1 1 <1 <1 2 1 <1 <1 1 1

Serbia, Czech Republic, North Korea, South Korea, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Italy, China, Tajikistan, Greece, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Italy, Spain, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Hungary, Venezuela, Vietnam, Slovakia (in May, 2016 each country received less than 1%)

10
None 4 2 3 4 14 7 7 3 3 5
It is difficult to say 19 17 15 17 1 21 24 17 14 10

DO YOU THINK THAT RELATIONS HAVE BEEN CHANGING RECENTLY, AND, IF SO, IN WHAT DIRECTION?

Between Russia and the US Between Russia and the European Union
Definitely going in the right direction 2 2
It seems they are changing for the better 10 14
I don’t see any changes 49 47
It seems they are changing for the worse 23 21
Definitely changing for the worse 8 7
It is difficult to say 8 10

IN YOUR OPINION, WHAT KIND OF INFLUENCE DOES THE EUROPEAN UNION HAVE IN TODAY’S WORLD? (N=800)

May.16
Strong influence 18
Some influence 40
Weak influence 26
No influence 6
Don’t know/No answer 11

IF RUSSIA HAD THE CHANCE TO BECOME A FULL MEMBER OF THE EUROPEAN UNION NOW, WOULD YOU BE FOR OR AGAINST THIS? (N=800)

Aug.09 May.16
Definitely for 12 5
Probably for 41 19
Probably against 15 37
Definitely against 6 19
It is difficult to say 27 21

ARE YOU WORRIED ABOUT THE THREAT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION COLLAPSING IN CONNECTION WITH THE INFLUX OF REFUGEES FROM NORTHERN AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST? (N=800)

May 10* May 16
Definitely yes 5 4
To some degree yes 28 23
Probably not 32 33
Definitely not 18 32
It is difficult to say 16 9

*This question was given in the following form: “ARE YOU WORRIED ABOUT THE THREAT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION COLLAPSING IN CONNECTION WITH THE CURRENT CRISIS CAUSED BY ENORMOUS AND GROWING DEBT INCURRED BY A NUMBER OF ITS MEMBER COUNTRIES?”

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly  Monterey Institute of International Studies).

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