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National Identity and Pride


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This survey took place between November 22–28, 2018 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 1600 people over the age of 18 in 136 localities of 52 of the country’s regions. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as a percentage of the number of participants.

The statistical error of these studies for a selection of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:

3.4% for indicators around 50%
2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%
2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%
1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%

WHAT IS THE FIRST THING THAT COMES TO MIND WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT YOUR PEOPLE? (respondents were presented with a card from which they could choose more than one answer or write in their own; ranked in descending order according to November 2018)*

  Aug.
94
Mar.
99
Aug.
03
Aug.
08
Oct.
12
Jun.
15
Aug.
16
Nov.
17
Nov.
18
Our past, our history 37 48 48 43 41 37 46 46 53
Our land, the territory on which we live 25 26 32 34 34 44 42 38 35
The place where I was born and grew up 41 35 43 39 43 41 40 39 33
Our natural surroundings 18 18 23 17 19 30 24 28 25
The state where I live 17 19 22 32 28 25 26 17 22
My native language 19 17 19 23 25 25 21 21 19
Our military power 5 7 8 8 9 15 18 21 17
Great people from my ethnic group 10 14 14 14 16 20 21 23 12
My people’s spiritual qualities 16 19 15 14 9 16 16 18 12
Our songs, holidays and customs 17 19 16 14 13 17 12 14 9
Our religion, the faith of my forefathers 8 7 8 12 10 15 14 11 9
Our ability to work hard and keep things in order 6 10 7 6 5 8 11 9 8
The graves of and monuments to our people 9 7 7 7 6 10 9 12 7
The flag, national coat of arms, and national anthem 2 3 4 8 8 9 10 9 5
Other 1 <1 1 1 <1 <1 <1 1 2
It is difficult to say 8 4 3 3 3 3 3 1 2

* From 1994 to 1999 the survey form had respondents fill in answers themselves

FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PAIRS OF OPINIONS, WHICH OF THE TWO DO YOU AGREE WITH THE MOST? (one answer)

  Apr.
92
Mar.
99
Aug. 08 Oct.
16
Nov.
17
Nov. 18
Russia should maintain its role as a superpower 72 78 86 76 82 88
Russia does not need to claim to be a superpower 14 9 6 17 13 10
It is difficult to say 13 13 8 7 5 2

FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PAIRS OF OPINIONS, WHICH OF THE TWO DO YOU AGREE WITH THE MOST? (one answer)

  Apr.
92
Mar.
99
Oct.
16
Nov.
17
Nov.
18
Russians are a great people who have a special place in world history 13 57 57 64 62
Russians are no different than other peoples 80 36 34 32 35
It is difficult to say 7 7 9 4 3

IN YOUR OPINION, IS RUSSIAN A SUPERPOWER IN THE PRESENT DAY? (one answer)

  Mar.
99
Oct.
01
Nov.
05
Nov.
06
Nov.
07
Nov.
10
Nov.
11
Nov.
15
Nov.
16
Nov.
17
Nov. 18
Definitely 12 11 7 12 17 16 11 65 21 28 35
Probably 19 29 23 31 36 39 36 43 44 40
Probably not 34 35 44 36 31 32 35 25 23 19 17
Definitely not 31 22 23 16 11 9 11 4 3 6
It is difficult to say 4 3 4 5 5 4 6 10 9 6 2

WHICH EVENTS AND PHENOMENONS IN THE HISTORY OF OUR COUNTRY MAKE YOU PROUD? (respondents were presented with a card from which they could choose more than one answer or write in their own; ranked in descending order according to December 2018)

  Apr.
99
Jul.
03
Aug.
08
Sep.
12
Mar.
14
Jun.
15
Jan.
17
Dec. 18
Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45 86 87 89 82 82 85 83 87
The country’s leading role in space exploration 60 59 61 45 46 42 41 50
Returning Crimea to the Russian Federation -* 43 45
The great Russian literary tradition 46 48 49 35 39 37 36 40
The achievements of Russian science 52 51 46 35 34 30 32 37
The glory of Russian weaponry 35 35 37 31 26 25 26 36
The moral qualities of Russian people: their simplicity, patience and steadfastness 45 44 35 32 24 27 23 32
The transformation of Russia during the Soviet era into a leading industrial power in the world 42 32 37 32 35 36 35 32
Renowned Russian adventurers and pioneers 33 33 28 26 21 21 19 24
The country’s stabilization under Putin and economic growth 32 13 12 20 18 18
The struggle against the Tartar-Mongol yoke, protecting Europe against invasion from the East 22 25 21 17 13 13 14 16
Progressive social system, classless society during the Soviet Union 14 13 9 10 10 12 9 14
The selfless devotion of Russian saints 10 14 13 11 10 11 7 12
The spirit of Russian freemen, love of freedom 12 14 13 12 10 12 10 10
Moral authority of the Russian intelligentsia 12 11 11 10 9 10 7 8
Perestroika, the beginning of market reforms 2 8 7 5 2 3 4 5
Other <1 <1 <1 1 <1 1 1 1
None of the above make me particularly proud 2 2 1 3 3 1 2 1
It is difficult to say 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 1

*This option was not included.

WHAT ARE YOU ASHAMED OF? WHAT CAUSES YOU SHAME OR UPSETS YOU WHEN YOU REFLECT ON RUSSIAN HISTORY IN THE 20TH CENTURY? (respondents were presented with a card from which they could choose more than one answer or write in their own; ranked in descending order according to December 2018)

  Apr.
99
Jul.
03
Aug.
08
Sep.
12
Jun.
15
Jan.
17
Dec.
18
We are a great people and a rich country, but we permanently live in poverty and disorder 79 78 69 56 56 54 61
The collapse of the USSR 48 41 38 32 28 33 45
Rudeness, impertinence, and people’s lack of respect toward each other 45 52 49 35 31 24 37
Always lagging behind the West 31 32 22 25 20 20 24
That which Perestroika turned out to be 16 17 18 24
The purges and forced population transfer in 1920-1950 34 39 35 25 25 22 21
Stagnation, inertness and laziness 24 34 27 18 20 14 18
The limited, incompetent and self-serving government 28 20 20 12 12 11 16
The persecution of the Church 21 18 27 16 12 11 16
The legacy of serfdom, the spirit of slavery, and people’s habit of forced labor 17 23 19 12 10 8 13
The desire to force our social system on other countries and peoples 15 9 8 6 5 4 9
Vladimir Putin’s rise to power 5 1 3 9
Ethnic arrogance 7 5 7 5 3 3 7
Russia’s military defeats 16 16 11 8 4 5 6
Other 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
None of the above make me particularly ashamed 1 2 3 9 6 8 6
It is difficult to say 5 3 5 6 4 5 2

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly Monterey Institute of International Studies).

The ANO Levada Center has been included in the registry of non-commercial organizations acting as foreign agents. Read the Director of the Levada Center’s statement of disagreement with this decision here [1].