- Levada-Center - https://www.levada.ru -

Stalin’s perception

This survey took place between March 21-27, 2019 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 1600 people over the age of 18 in 137 localities of 50 of the country’s regions. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as a percentage of the number of participants.

The statistical error of these studies for a selection of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:

3.4% for indicators around 50%
2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%
2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%
1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%

IN GENERAL, WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS STALIN? (respondents were presented with a card with a list of possible answers from which they could choose only one)

Apr.
01
Apr.
06
Oct.
08
Feb.
10
Oct.
12
Mar.
14
Mar.
15
Mar.
16
Jan.
17
Mar.
18
Mar.
19
Admiration 4 5 1 2 1 3 2 2 4 2 4
Respect 27 23 22 23 21 28 30 28 32 29 41
Affection, fondness 7 8 8 7 6 9 7 7 10 9 6
Indifference 12 19 37 38 33 30 30 32 22 31 26
Enmity, irritation 18 18 12 12 12 10 9 9 12 7 6
Fear 16 15 7 7 7 6 6 5 7 3 5
Revulsion, hatred 9 5 4 5 4 3 5 3 2 2 3
I don’t know who Stalin is -* -* -* -* 1 1 -* 1 -* 1 1
It is difficult to say/no answer 6 8 10 7 16 11 11 14 10 16 7

-* This option was not selected.

IN YOUR OPINION, WHAT ROLE DID STALIN PLAY IN THE HISTORY OF RUSSIA? (one answer)

Mar. 03 Dec. 06 Feb. 08 Oct. 08 Dec. 09 Dec. 10 Mar. 11 Feb. 13 Dec. 14 Mar. 16 Mar.19
Entirely positive 18 9 10 8 10 11 8 9 16 8 18
Mostly positive 35 33 29 33 39 40 37 40 36 46 52
Mostly negative 21 26 25 27 23 21 25 22 21 24 14
Very negative 12 11 13 10 9 9 10 10 9 6 5
It is difficult to say 14 22 22 21 19 19 20 19 19 17 11

Table 1. Political preferences and respondents’ age

Total Respondents’ votes in the elections on March 18, 2018** Age
Pavel Grudinin Vladimir Zhirinovsky Vladimir
Putin
18-24 25-39 40-54 55+
Number of survey participants       1638 168 128 1167 147 498 412 582
IN GENERAL, WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS STALIN? 
Admiration 4 7 7 3 5 6 5 3
Respect 41 36 54 42 27 39 43 47
Affection, fondness 6 6 6 7 6 6 7 6
Indifference 26 28 18 27 39 29 25 22
Enmity, irritation 6 8 4 5 6 6 6 7
Fear 5 5 4 5 4 3 5 6
Revulsion, hatred 3 5 1 2 3 2 2 3
I don’t know who Stalin is 1 1 2 2 <1 <1
It is difficult to say/no answer 7 4 7 8 8 7 8 7
IN YOUR OPINION, WHAT ROLE DID STALIN PLAY IN THE HISTORY OF RUSSIA?
Entirely positive 18 16 25 18 16 19 18 19
Mostly positive 52 52 55 52 49 51 56 51
Mostly negative 14 17 11 14 14 14 13 14
Very negative 5 7 2 5 5 6 4 6
It is difficult to say 11 8 7 11 17 11 9 10

-** The tables only include the candidates that were voted for by a sufficient number of respondents.

IN YOUR OPINION, DO THE LOFTY GOALS AND RESULTS ACHIEVED IN A SHORT TIME JUSTIFY THE HUMAN COST BORNE BY SOVIET PEOPLE DURING THE STALIN ERA?

Apr. 17 Mar. 19
Definitely yes 7 13
To some extent yes 29 33
No, it cannot be justified in any way 49 45
It is difficult to say 14 9

IN YOUR OPINION, DO THE LOFTY GOALS AND RESULTS ACHIEVED IN A SHORT TIME JUSTIFY THE COST BORNE BY SOVIET PEOPLE DURING THE STALIN ERA?

  Oct. 08 Feb. 10 Apr. 11 Nov. 12 Mar. 15
Definitely yes 3 5 4 4 7
Yes, to some extent 24 29 26 21 38
No, it cannot be justified in any way 60 58 61 60 42
It is difficult to say/no answer 13 9 10 15 13

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly Monterey Institute of International Studies).

The ANO Levada Center has been included in the registry of non-commercial organizations acting as foreign agents. Read the Director of the Levada Center’s statement of disagreement with this decision here [1].

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