This survey was conducted September 25–30, 2020, among a representative sample of all Russian urban and rural residents. The sample was comprised of 1605 people aged 18 or older in 137 municipalities of 50 regions of the Russian Federation. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the total number of participants along with data from previous surveys.
The statistical error of these studies for a sample of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:
3.4% for indicators around 50%
2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%
2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%
1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%
IN YOUR OPINION, DOES MODERN RUSSIA HAVE ENEMIES? (one answer)
|Yes||No||It is difficult to say|
WHO WOULD YOU SAY ARE ENEMIES OF RUSSIA? (this question was only posed to respondents who think Russia has enemies; respondents named enemies THEMSELVES, without a card with lists of responses, and could name more than one; in descending order; the table lists enemies with ≥0.5% of responses)*
|Great Britain (England)||10|
|European Union (Europe)||7|
|Baltics (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia)||5|
|Everyone, the entire world, foreigners||3|
|Our authorities, the government, higher-ups, the State Duma, the United Russia Party, bureaucrats||3|
|ISIS, Islamic groups, Islamic terrorists||2|
|We are our own enemies||1|
|The opposition, liberals, the fifth column||1|
|It is difficult to say/no answer||8|
*The Levada Center conducts a separate survey about countries that are “friends” and “enemies” of Russia, which can be accessed here . Based on the results of the survey in August 2020, the USA, Ukraine, and Great Britain are at the top of the list of states that, according to respondents’ opinion, are unfriendly towards Russia as well.
Trends in the top 5 answers
(based on the responses to the open question, “Who would you say are enemies of Russia?”)
|Dec 17||Nov 18||Sep 20|
|European Union||14||Great Britain||14||Great Britain||10|
|Former USSR republics, including the Baltics||10||European Union||9||European Union||7|
Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly Monterey Institute of International Studies).
The ANO Levada Center has been included in the registry of non-commercial organizations acting as foreign agents. Read the Director of the Levada Center’s statement of disagreement with this decision here .