This survey took place between 2-6 March 2017 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 1600 people over the age of 18 in 137 localities of 48 of the country’s regions. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the number of participants.

The statistical error of these studies for a selection of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:

                3.4% for indicators around 50%

                2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%

                2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%

                1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%

WHAT DATE, ERA, OR EVENT, IN YOUR OPINION, WAS THE BEGINNING OF RUSSIAN HISTORY? (respondents were presented with a CARD; one answer; responses ranked according to latest survey)

  Jul. 03

Mar. 17

Prehistoric times, time immemorial 39 36
Kievan Rus 19 26
Christianization of Rus’ 11 12
Formation of the Russian principalities 3 7
The reign of Peter the Great 10 5
The October Revolution of 1917 4 3
Founding of the Tsardom of Muscovy 2 2
Collapse of the USSR and creation of the Russian Federation (1991) 1 2
Election of President Vladimir Putin 1 2
Adoption of the Declaration of Sovereignty of the Russian Federation (1990) <1 1
Other <1 <1 
It is difficult to say 10 5

WHICH PERIODS OF RUSSIAN HISTORY DO YOU FIND PARTICULARLY INTERESTING? (the respondent was presented a CARD; multiple answers; responses ranked according to latest survey)

  Jul. 08 Mar. 17
World War II 55 38
Era of Peter the Great, 18th century 42 31
History of ancient Rus (8th-17th centuries) 34 28
The “Silver Age” (late 19th, early 20th centuries) 23 18
1970s-80s, Brezhnev era 11 17
19th century 14 14
1917 Revolution, formation of the Soviet Union 15 13
1930s and 1950s (collectivization, industrialization, Stalinist repressions, creation of the Soviet superpower) 13 12
1960s (thaw, Khrushchev administration and reform) 9 10
Gorbachev’s perestroika, Yeltsin administration 12 10
Late 1920s, New Economic Policy 5 6
Other 1 1
Russian history does not interest me at all 7 15
It is difficult to say 10 5

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly  Monterey Institute of International Studies).

ANO Levada Center has been included in the register of noncommercial organizations acting as foreign agents. See the Director of the Levada Center’s statement of disagreement with this decision here.