Press-releases

Stalin

This survey took place between 11 and 14 March 2016 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 1600 people over the age of 18 in 137 localities of 48 of the country’s regions.  The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the number of participants along with data from previous surveys. The statistical error of these studies does not exceed 3.4%.

OVERALL, WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD STALIN? (one answer)

Apr.01 Apr.06 Oct.08 Feb.10 Oct.12 Mar.14 Mar.15 Mar.16
Admiration 4 5 1 2 1 3 2 2
Respect 27 23 22 23 21 28 30 28
Sympathy 7 8 8 7 6 9 7 7
Indifference 12 19 37 38 33 30 30 32
Contempt, anger 18 18 12 12 12 10 9 9
Fear 16 15 7 7 7 6 6 5
Disgust, hate 9 5 4 5 4 3 5 3
I don’t know who Stalin is -* -* -* -* 1 1 -* 1
It is difficult to say/ no answer 6 8 10 7 16 11 11 14

*Answer was not included as a possible response

WHAT ROLE DO YOU BELIEVE STALIN PLAYED IN OUR COUNTRY’S HISTORY?

  Mar.03 Dec.06 Feb.08 Dec.09 Dec.10 Mar.11 Feb.13 Dec.14 Mar.16
Definitely positive 18 9 10 10 11 8 9 16 8
Probably positive 35 33 29 39 40 37 40 36 46
Probably negative 21 26 25 23 21 25 22 21 24
Definitely negative 12 11 13 9 9 10 10 9 6
It is difficult to say 14 22 22 19 19 20 19 19 17

TO WHAT DEGREE DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE WITH THE ASSERTION THAT “STALIN WAS A CRUEL, INHUMAN TYRANT, GUILTY OF THE DEATHS OF MILLIONS OF INNOCENT PEOPLE”?

Oct.08 Oct.12 Mar.16
Fully agree 24 26 23
Probably agree 44 40 39
Probably disagree 15 14 17
Fully disagree 4 6 5
It is difficult to say/No answer 13 16 16

 

Russia Respondents who consider Stalin a tyrant Respondents who deny Stalin’s guilt in the death of millions
Number of surveyed 1602 991 361
WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD STALIN?
Admiration 2 1 4
Respect 28 17 53
Sympathy 7 5 12
Indifference 32 36 23
Contempt, irritation 9 14 1
Fear 5 7 2
Disgust, hatrd 3 5 <1
I don’t know who Stalin is 1 1 <1
It is difficult to say/ No answer 14 15 4
WHAT ROLE DO YOU BELIEVE STALIN PLAYED IN THE COUNTRY’S HISTORY?
Definitely positive 8 3 23
Probably positive 46 39 62
Probably negative 24 34 7
Definitely negative 6 9 1
It is difficult to say 17 15 7

TO WHAT DEGREE DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING ASSERTION: “STALIN WAS A WISE LEADER WHO BROUGHT GREATNESS AND PROSPERITY TO THE USSR”?

Oct.08 Oct.12 Mar.16
Fully agree 13 15 18
Probably agree 37 32 39
Probably disagree 26 25 22
Fully disagree 11 13 11
It is difficult to say/ No answer 14 15 11

DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE WITH THE STATEMENT “STALIN WAS A GREAT LEADER”?

Apr.92 Mar.16
Fully disagree 22 10
Probably disagree 15 13
Both agree and disagree 24 42
Probably agree 13 20
Fully agree 16 8
It is difficult to say/ no answer 12 7

WOULD YOU PERSONALLY LIKE TO LIVE AND WORK UNDER A LEADER LIKE STALIN?

Oct.08 Oct.12 Mar.16
Definitely yes 3 5 5
Probably yes 13 13 18
Probably not 31 33 30
Definitely not 43 34 30
It is difficult to say 10 15 17

 TO WHAT DEGREE DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT: “WHATEVER MISTAKES AND SINS MAY BE ATTRIBUTED TO STALIN, THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IS THAT, UNDER HIS LEADERSHIP, OUR PEOPLE WERE VICTORIOUS IN WORLD WAR II”?

Oct.08 Oct.12 Mar.16
Fully agree 26 20 26
Probably agree 42 40 45
Probably disagree 15 18 13
Definitely disagree 4 9 8
It is difficult to say/ no answer 13 12 8

TO WHAT DEGREE DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT: “THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN ABLE TO LIVE WITHOUT A LEADER LIKE STALIN, WHO WOULD ESTABLISH ORDER”?

Oct.08 Oct.12 Mar.16
Fully agree 10 10 8
Probably agree 24 20 26
Probably disagree 31 27 27
Fully disagree 19 25 22

It is difficult to say/ no answer

17 18 17

WITH WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING OPINIONS REGARDING STALINIST PURGES DO YOU MOST LIKELY AGREE?

Aug.07 Oct.12 Mar.16
It was a political necessity and was historically justified 9 22 26
It was a political crime and can have no justification 72 51 45
I don’t know anything about the purges 19 6 8
It is difficult to say/ no answer 20 22

 

It was a political necessity and historically justified It was a political crime and can have no justification I don’t know anything about this It is difficult to say
Russia 26 45 8 22
Respondents, who consider Stalin a tyrant 19 63 5 15
Respondents, who deny Stalin’s guilt in the death of millions of innocent people 52 15 9 24
Residents of Moscow 20 63 2 16
Rural residents 26 39 9 26
18-24 18 36 19 26
25-39 24 46 9 21
40-54 24 51 4 21
55+ 34 41 5 20

60 YEARS AGO, AT THE 20TH CONGRESS OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY, NIKITA SERGEYEVICH KHRUSHCHEV DENOUNCED THE CULT OF STALIN AND THE TERROR OF STALIN’S REIGN. WHAT ROLE, IN YOUR OPINION, DID THIS CONGRESS PLAY IN THE COUNTRY’S HISTORY?

Mar.11 Mar.16
Very positive 13 7
Probably positive 35 33
Probably negative 17 20
Very negative 5 3
It is difficult to say 30 37

IS RUSSIA FREE OF THE LEGACY OF STALINISM?

Mar.11 Mar.16
Yes, it is free 32 34
No, but it is gradually overcoming it 30 21
It will never be free of it 12 13
It doesn’t need to be, as there was much good under Stalin 11 15
It is difficult to say 15 17

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD STALIN? (one answer)

Residents of Russia Residents of Ukraine
Admiration 2 1
Respect 28 13
Sympathy 7 3
Indifferently 32 26
Contempt, anger 9 13
Fear 5 8
Disgust, hatred 3 17
I don’t know who Stalin is 1 1
It is difficult to say/ No answer 14 18

DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE WITH THE STATEMENT “STALIN WAS A GREAT LEADER”?

Residents of Russia Residents of Ukraine
Fully disagree 10 44
Probably disagree 13
Both agree and disagree 42 27
Probably agree 20 23
Definitely agree 8
It is difficult to say/ no answer 7 6

TO WHAT DEGREE DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING ASSERTION: “STALIN WAS A WISE LEADER WHO BROUGHT GREATNESS AND PROSPERITY TO THE USSR”?

Residents of Russia Residents of Ukraine
Fully agree 18 13
Probably agree 39 15
Probably disagree 22 19
Definitely disagree 11 31
It is difficult to say/ no answer 11 21

WOULD YOU PERSONALLY LIKE TO LIVE AND WORK UNDER A LEADER LIKE STALIN?

Residents of Russia Residents of Ukraine
Definitely 5 5
Probably 18 9
Probably not 30 21
Definitely not 30 54
It is difficult to say 17 12

TO WHAT DEGREE DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE WITH THE ASSERTION THAT “STALIN WAS A CRUEL, INHUMAN TYRANT, GUILTY OF THE DEATHS OF MILLIONS OF INNOCENT PEOPLE”?

Residents of Russia Residents of Ukraine
Fully agree 23 41
Probably agree 39 28
Probably disagree 17 6
Definitely disagree 5 3
It is difficult to say/ no answer 16 22

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly  Monterey Institute of International Studies).