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Fall of the USSR and yeltsin era

This survey took place between 18 and 21 December 2015 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 1600 people over the age of 18 in 137 localities of 48 of the country’s regions.  The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the number of participants along with data from previous surveys. The statistical error of these studies does not exceed 3.4%.

HOW WOULD YOU CHARACTERIZE YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD BORIS YELTSIN?

Sept.93 Mar.00 Dec.00 Dec.05 Dec.10 Dec.15
Very positive 12 1 2 2 3 4
Mostly positive 26 6 7 8 14 10
Neutral 19 37 32 33 42 37
Mostly negative 21 28 29 29 21 21
Very negative 15 25 27 26 14 15
It is difficult to say 7 3 4 3 7 13

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD RUSSIA’S 1990 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE?

Jan.00 Dec.15
Very positive 13 5
Mostly positive 24 24
Probably negative 19 22
Mostly negative 9 12
It is difficult to say 35 39

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD YELTSIN WINNING THE 1991 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OVER RYZHKOV AND ZHIRINOVSKY?

Jan.00 Dec.15
Very positive 12 4
Mostly positive 25 21
Mostly negative 29 28
Very negative 19 19
It is difficult to say 15 29

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD YELTSIN WINNING THE 1996 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OVER ZYUGANOV?

Jan.00 Dec.15
Very positive 7 3
Probably positive 20 17
Probably negative 28 27
Very negative 32 22
It is difficult to say 13 32

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS THE CLOSEST TO YOUR VIEWS ON THE REASONS FOR YELTSIN’S RESIGNATION?

Jan.00 Dec.00 Dec.03 Dec.07 дек.15
Yeltsin resigned due to illness and inability to fulfill his duties as president of Russia 40 41 39 42 35
Yeltsin resigned due to overwhelming political criticism 14 21 23 16 19
Yeltsin resigned to allow younger politicians, capable of leading Russian out of the crisis, to take his place 13 10 10 16 16
Yeltsin resigned to give Vladimir Putin the best chance possible to win the then upcoming presidential elections 28 22 20 14 14
Other 2 1 2 2 3
It is difficult to say 4 5 7 10 13

FROM A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, DID THE YELTSIN ERA, IN YOUR OPINION, BRING RUSSIA MORE GOOD OR BAD?

More good More bad It is difficult to say
Dec.15 18 56 26
Apr.13 14 66 20
Dec.11 18 63 19
Dec.10 20 59 22
Dec.09 17 63 20
Dec.07 19 58 23
May.07 26 47 27
Dec.06 15 64 21
Dec.05 13 70 17
Dec.04 16 69 15
Feb.03 13 71 16
Dec.02 14 69 17
Dec.01 15 67 18
Jun.01 17 66 17
Dec.00 15 75 11
Jan.00 15 67 18

Events of 1992-1993

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD THE GAIDAR REFORMS OF 1992?

Jan.00 Dec.15
Very positive 2 1
Mostly positive 6 10
Mostly negative 34 27
Very negative 43 31
It is difficult to say 16 31

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD THE DISSOLUTION OF THE SUPREME SOVIET OF RUSSIA IN 1993?

Jan.00 Dec.15
Very positive 3 2
Mostly positive 12 12
Mostly negative 26 25
Very negative 20 19
It is difficult to say 39 43

Fall of the USSR

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARD THE DISSOLUTION OF THE USSR IN 1991?

Jan.00 Dec.15
Very positive 4 3
Mostly positive 8 12
Mostly negative 29 31
Very negative 48 32
It is difficult to say 12 23

DO YOU REGRET THE COLLAPSE OF THE USSR?*

Yes No It is difficult to say
Nov.15 54 37 9
Nov.14 54 28 18
Dec.12 49 35 16
Nov.11 53 32 16
Nov.10 55 30 16
Nov.09 60 28 12
Nov.08 60 30 10
Nov.07 55 36 10
Nov.06 61 30 9
Nov.05 65 25 9
Dec.04 68 26 6
Dec.02 68 25 7
Dec.01 72 21 7
Dec.00 75 19 6
Jan.99 74 16 10
Nov.94 66 19 15
Mar.93 63 23 14
Mar.92 66 23 11

WAS THE FALL OF THE SOVIET UNION, IN YOUR OPINION, UNAVOIDABLE, OR COULD IT HAVE BEEN AVOIDED?*

It was unavoidable Could have been avoided It is difficult to say
Nov.15 39 51 11
Nov.14 30 55 15
Dec.12 31 48 21
Nov.11 33 53 14
Nov.10 32 53 15
Nov.09 28 57 15
Nov.08 30 55 15
Nov.07 30 56 14
Nov.06 27 59 14
Nov.05 29 61 10
Nov.04 24 65 10
Dec.02 29 59 12
Dec.01 29 58 13
Mar.00 26 62 12
Feb.98 24 58 18

*Survey conducted between 20 and 23 November, 2015; N=800.

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly  Monterey Institute of International Studies).

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