This survey took place between 27 and 30 May 2016 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 800 people over the age of 18 in 137 localities of 48 of the country’s regions. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the number of participants along with data from previous surveys. The statistical error of these studies does not exceed 4.1% for indicators around 50%.
DO YOU THINK THE SECOND WORLD WAR COULD HAVE BEEN AVOIDED AT THE END OF THE 1930S, OR WAS IT UNAVOIDABLE?
|War could have been avoided||35||23|
|War was unavoidable||47||61|
|It is difficult to say||19||16|
SOME SAY THAT GERMANY’S JUNE 22, 1941 ATTACK ON THE USSR WAS UNEXPECTED, WHILE OTHERS SAY THIS WAS A FABRICATION TO COVER UP STALIN’S POLITICAL BLUNDERS, WHICH LEFT THE SOVIET UNION UNPREPARED FOR WAR. WITH WHICH OF THESE OPINIONS DO YOU AGREE?
|Germany’s attack on the USSR was unexpected||32||42||52|
|The idea that it was unexpected was fabricated to cover up Stalin’s political blunders||58||49||38|
|It is difficult to say||9||9||10|
* This question was given in the following form: “WHAT WAS THE MAIN REASON FOR THE RED ARMY’S HUGE LOSSES IN THE FIRST TWO YEARS OF THE WAR?”
ARE THERE (OR WERE THERE) PARTICIPANTS IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR IN YOUR FAMILY?
DID MEMBERS OF YOUR FAMILY DIE DURING THE WAR (AT THE FRONT, IN CAPTIVITY, DURING PUNITIVE ACTIONS, BOMBINGS, SIEGE, ETC.)?
ARE THERE MEMBERS OF YOUR FAMILY WHO WERE MISSING IN ACTION DURING THE WAR?
TO WHOM DO YOU THINK MOST CREDIT SHOULD BE GIVEN FOR THE USSR’S VICTORY IN WORLD WAR TWO? (one answer)
|May 10||May 13||May 14||May 16|
|The Soviet people||62||52||53||51|
|The Communist Party and Soviet leaders||4||5||3||4|
|No one, it was a miracle that the war was won||2||1||1||1|
|It is difficult to say||2||3||1||2|
WHO, IN YOUR OPINION, IS MOST RESPONSIBLE FOR RUSSIA’S LOSS OF MILLIONS IN THE WAR? (one answer)
|May 10||May 13||May 14||May 16|
|No one except our enemy||28||37||51||47|
|The Communist Party and Soviet leaders||20||13||12||10|
|It is difficult to say||6||11||8||8|
YOU HAVE PROBABLY HEARD OF GENERAL VLASOV, WHO DISTINGUISHED HIMSELF DURING THE DEFENSE OF MOSCOW AND LENINGRAD BUT WAS LATER CAPTURED BY THE GERMANS AND HEADED THE “RUSSIAN LIBERATION ARMY,” COMPOSED OF RUSSIAN P.O.W.S FIGHTING AGAINST THE STALINIST REGIME. HOW WOULD YOU PERSONALLY FEEL ABOUT THE POSTHUMOUS POLITICAL REHABILITATION OF GENERAL VLASOV?
|It is difficult to say||32||30|
WHAT DO YOU THINK MADE SOVIET PEOPLE ENTER THE RANKS OF VLASOV’S ARMY? (multiple answers)
|Jan.05||May 10||May 16|
|Desire to avoid death in P.O.W. camps||49||39||51|
|Hatred of Soviet authorities, caused by collectivization, mass purges, forced relocation, etc.||31||29||22|
|Greed, promises of gains and advantages bestowed on traitors||18||17||15|
|Desire to break free and flee to the West||17||10||12|
|It is difficult to say||21||24||21|
IN YOUR OPINION, THE INCLUSION OF THE BALTIC STATES (LITHUANIA, LATVIA, ESTONIA) IN THE SOVIET UNION IN 1940 WAS THE RESULT OF…
|May 05||May 07||Jul.10||Jun.11||May 16|
|The free will of the people of these countries||31||37||26||27||34|
|Pressure from the Soviet Union||29||26||32||31||30|
|A secret agreement between Stalin and Hitler||17||12||15||17||10|
|It is difficult to say||23||25||27||25||26|
ON 1 JULY 1991 THE WARSAW PACT MILITARY ALLIANCE WAS DISSOLVED. DO YOU THINK OUR COUNTRY WON OR LOST AS A RESULT OF THIS ACTION?
|It is difficult to say||45||43||48|
Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly Monterey Institute of International Studies).