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Xenophobic sentiments

This survey took place between 5-8 August 2016 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 1600 people over the age of 18 in 137 localities of 48 of the country’s regions.  The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the number of participants along with data from previous surveys.

The statistical error of these studies for a selection of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:

                3.4% for indicators around 50%

                2.9% for indicators around 25%

                2.0% for indicators around 10%

                1.5% for indicators around 5%

Ethnophobia: Trend Data for the Year

DO YOU THINK THERE SHOULD BE RESTRICTIONS ON THE RESIDENCY IN RUSSIA OF… (multiple answers)

 

Aug.

04

Aug.

06

Aug.

07

Aug.

09

Aug.

10

Aug.

11

Aug.

12

Oct.

13

Jul.

14

Aug.

15

Aug.

16

People from the Caucasus 46 42 44 38 37 39 42 54 38 29 34
People from Central Asian former Soviet Republics 31 23 25 20 27 26 35 45 29 29 29
Chinese 39 41 41 34 36 30 37 45 33 24 24
Roma 32 29 25 22 30 18 29 32 23 22 21
Vietnamese 39 35 34 24 33 21 31 32 27 22 19
Ukrainians 8 7 6 7 6 5 6 5 8 14 13
Jews 15 13 10 6 11 8 10 8 8 7 6
All nationalities except Russian 14 11 10 16 16 17 13 14 14 15 18
There should be no restrictions on any nationalities’ residency 21 25 23 19 21 17 18 11 21 25 20
It is difficult to say 5 7 8 14 12 15 9 8 10 10 10

WHAT FEELINGS DO YOU PERSONALLY EXPERIENCE TOWARD PEOPLE FROM THE SOUTHERN REPUBLICS LIVING IN YOUR CITY, REGION? (multiple answers)

 

Dec.

04

Nov.

06

Nov.

07

Dec.

08

Dec.

10

Dec.

11

Nov.

12

Oct.

13

Mar.

14

Jul.

14

Aug.

15

Aug.

16

Respect 3 4 6 4 5 1 3 3 4 6 4 2
Affection 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 3 6 6 4 3
Annoyance 23 18 16 14 14 15 21 25 20 17 18 15
Contempt 24 15 18 14 15 20 21 30 21 20 16 18
Fear 4 3 4 2 6 3 3 6 7 5 3 5
No particular feelings 46 56 54 61 57 57 46 39 43 54 55 60
It is difficult to say 4 3 3 2 4 1 3 2 4 1 3 1

WHAT IS YOUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE IDEA OF “RUSSIA FOR RUSSIANS”?

 

Jul.

02

Aug.

04

Aug.

06

Aug.

07

Oct.

08

Nov.

09

Jan.

11

Nov.

11

Nov.

12

Oct.

13

Jul.

14

Aug.

15

Aug.

16

I support it, it’s high time to make it a reality 17 22 17 14 15 18 15 19 15 23 18 16 14
It wouldn’t be bad to implement it, but within reason 38 37 37 41 42 36 43 40 41 43 36 35 38
Negative, it’s pure fascism 28 25 28 27 25 32 24 23 23 19 27 25 21
I’m not interested in it 10 12 11 11 12 9 13 11 14 9 14 16 21
It is difficult to say 7 5 7 7 7 5 5 7 6 6 5 8 6

Inter-ethnic tension and conflict potential

IS THERE CURRENTLY PALPABLE INTER-ETHNIC TENSION IN THE CITY, REGION WHERE YOU LIVE?

 

Nov.

05

Apr.

06

Nov.

06

Apr.

07

Dec.

08

Dec.

10

Dec.

11

Nov.

12

Oct.

13

Jul.

14

Aug.

15

Aug.

16

Definitely yes 5 4 7 4 7 7 4 5 10 3 6 3
Probably yes 21 18 23 18 20 19 21 24 33 20 16 15
Probably no 44 44 40 46 41 46 46 46 39 50 45 46
Definitely no 26 30 24 27 24 20 24 20 13 21 28 33
It is difficult to say 4 4 6 4 7 8 6 6 6 5 6 4

ARE BLOODY ETHNIC MASS CONFLICTS CURRENTLY POSSIBLE IN THE AREA WHERE YOU LIVE?

 

Jul.

02

Jul.

07

Oct.

08

Nov.

09

Jan.

11

Nov.

11

Nov.

12

Oct.

13

Jul.

14

Aug.

15

Aug.

16

Definitely yes 5 6 4 2 8 6 3 6 2 3 3
Probably yes 19 16 16 8 22 14 20 19 11 11 9
Probably no 43 46 41 38 42 40 45 45 45 43 46
Definitely no 25 22 30 42 21 28 23 19 31 35 38
It is difficult to say 9 10 10 10 8 12 9 12 11 9 5

ARE BLOODY ETHNIC MASS CONFLICTS CURRENTLY POSSIBLE IN RUSSIA?

 

Jul.

02

Jul.

07

Oct.

08

Nov.

09

Jan.

11

Nov.

11

Nov.

12

Oct.

13

Jul.

14

Aug.

15

Aug.

16

Definitely yes 12 13 10 3 15 11 11 17 5 5 4
Probably yes 37 37 29 20 41 28 32 45 19 20 21
Probably no 30 32 32 39 28 39 36 24 46 42 46
Definitely no 12 8 18 25 6 11 11 5 20 23 22
It is difficult to say 10 10 11 12 11 11 10 9 10 11 8

WHICH POLITICAL COURSE DO YOU THINK RUSSIA SHOULD TAKE: ATTEMPT TO LIMIT THE FLOW OF IMMIGRANTS INTO THE COUNTRY, OR ATTEMPT TO USE IT TO RUSSIA’S BENEFIT AND NOT PLACE ANY ADMINISTRATIVE BARRIERS IN ITS WAY?

 

Jul.

02

Aug.

04

Oct.

05

Aug.

06

Aug.

07

Oct.

08

Nov.

09

Jan.

11

Nov.

11

Aug.

12

Oct.

13

Feb.

14

Jul.

14

Aug.

15

Mar.

16

Aug.

16

Attempt to limit the flow of immigrants 45 54 59 52 57 52 61 68 64 70 78 72 76 68 80 66
Attempt to use the flow of immigrants into the country to Russia’s benefit and not place any administrative barriers in its way 44 38 36 39 32 35 30 24 28 20 14 19 16 23 10 23
It is difficult to say 10 7 6 9 10 13 9 8 8 10 8 8 8 9 10 11

 

  The share of respondents who named events related to the European migrant crisis as the most memorable (as a percentage) Position in rating of memorable events
Sept.15 27 2
Oct.15 33 2
Nov.15 28 2
Nov.15 20 4
Dec.15 16 11
Jan.16 28 3
Feb.16 26 4
Feb.16 20 4
Mar.16 20 4
Mar.16 19 7
May.16 11 10
Apr.16 14 4

TO WHAT DEGREE DO YOU AGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT: “IMMIGRANTS ENRICH RUSSIAN SOCIETY BY BRINGING NEW IDEAS AND CULTURES WITH THEM”?

  Jul.96 Jul.03 Oct.12 Aug.16
Fully agree 6 6 4 1
Probably agree 17 15 15 11
Neither agree nor disagree 20 18 27 29
Probably disagree 17 22 29 33
Fully disagree 15 15 17 21
It is difficult to say 24 24 8 5

TO WHAT DEGREE DO YOU AGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT: “OVERALL, IMMIGRANTS ARE DESTROYING RUSSIAN CULTURE”?

  Oct.12  Aug.16
Fully agree 18  16
Probably agree 28  23
Neither agree nor disagree 28  28
Probably disagree 15  19
Fully disagree 4  8
It is difficult to say 7  6

TO WHAT DEGREE DO YOU AGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT: “IMMIGRANTS OVERALL FACILITATE  THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY”?

  Jul.96 Jul.03 Oct.12 Aug.16
Fully agree 4 4 5 1
Probably agree 11 12 19 11
Neither agree nor disagree 20 17 29 31
Probably disagree 24 28 29 34
Fully disagree 17 18 14 17
It is difficult to say 24 22 6 5

TO WHAT DEGREE DO YOU AGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT: “IMMIGRANTS LEAD TO INCREASED CRIME RATES”?

  Jun.96 Jul.03 Oct.12 Aug.16
Fully agree 29 35 34 26
Probably agree 25 24 37 38
Neither agree nor disagree 13 12 17 21
Probably disagree 11 10 7 8
Fully disagree 6 5 1 3
It is difficult to say 16 14 5 4

TO WHAT DEGREE DO YOU AGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT: “IMMIGRANTS TAKE JOBS AWAY FROM RUSSIANS”?

  Jun.96 Jul.03 Oct.12 Aug.16
Fully agree 21 32 31 27
Probably agree 27 26 36 35
Neither agree nor disagree 14 15 18 22
Probably disagree 15 11 11 11
Fully disagree 8 5 1 2
It is difficult to say 15 10 4 3

IN YOUR VIEW, HAS THE NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS IN THE AREA WHERE YOU LIVE DECREASED, REMAINED THE SAME, OR INCREASED OVER THE LAST TWO YEARS?

  Aug.16
Significantly decreased 1
Probably decreased 6
Remained the same 43
Probably increased 31
Significantly increased 11
It is difficult to say 7

IN YOUR OPINION, WHAT POLITICAL COURSE SHOULD THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT TAKE REGARDING IMMIGRANTS?

  Total for sample selection Among respondents with a HIGH level of interpersonal trust * Among respondents with a LOW level of interpersonal trust *
Attempt to limit the flow of immigrants 66 55 71
Attempt to use the flow of immigrants to Russia’s benefit and not place any administrative barriers in its path 23 29 21
It is difficult to say 11 15 8

* Based on the question: “REGARDING HUMAN RELATIONS, YOU WOULD SAY, BASED ON YOUR EXPERIENCE, THAT…”

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly  Monterey Institute of International Studies).

The ANO Levada Center has been included in the register of non-commercial organizations acting as foreign agents. See the Director of the Levada Center’s statement of disagreement with this decision here.

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