This survey took place between 21-24 October 2016 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 1600 people over the age of 18 in 137 localities of 48 of the country’s regions. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the number of participants along with data from previous surveys.
The statistical error of these studies for a selection of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:
3.4% for indicators around 50%
2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%
2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%
1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%
DO YOU KNOW WHO IVAN THE TERRIBLE WAS? WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT HIM? WITH WHAT DO YOU ASSOCIATE HIS REIGN? WHAT ELSE? (respondents THEMSELVES indicated what they associate with Ivan the Terrible’s reign; multiple answers)
|First Tsar of Russia||66|
|Killing his own son||35|
|Strengthening/expanding the Russian state||17|
|The oprichnina/Malyuta Skuratov||16|
|Kazan and Astrakhan campaigns/conquering Kazan and Astrakhan||15|
|Personal life/multiple wives||8|
|Construction of St. Basil’s Cathedral||8|
|Military reforms/creation of the streltsy standing army||7|
|Governmental reforms/Zemsky Sobor, creation of government departments||6|
|Campaign against the Crimean Khanate/Crimean War||6|
|Founding the Moscow Print Yard/Library of Ivan the Terrible||6|
|Judicial system reform/the first Sudebnik||6|
|Conquest of Western Siberia/the Siberian Khanate by Yermak Timofeyevich||6|
|War with Sweden||4|
|Ruin and destruction of the Boyar families||3|
|Imprisonment and murder of Metropolitan Philip||3|
|Destruction of Velikiy Novgorod, Tver, other cities||2|
|Burning of Moscow by Khan Devlet I Giray||1|
|Coronation/abdication of Simeon Bekbulatovich||1|
|I don’t know who Ivan the Terrible was||3|
DO YOU THINK THAT IVAN THE TERRIBLE BROUGHT RUSSIA MORE GOOD OR BAD?*
|Definitely more good||27|
|Probably more good||22|
|Probably more bad||11|
|Definitely more bad||2|
|It is difficult to say||37|
* See Russians’ attitudes towards other historical figures here and here.
DO YOU APPROVE OF THE ERECTION OF A MONUMENT TO IVAN THE TERRIBLE IN ORYOL?
|It is difficult to say||27|
Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly Monterey Institute of International Studies).
The ANO Levada Center has been included in the register of non-commercial organizations acting as foreign agents. See the Director of the Levada Center’s statement of disagreement with this decision here.