Press-releases

Enemies

This survey took place between December 1-5, 2017 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 1600 people over the age of 18 in 137 localities of 48 of the country’s regions. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the number of participants along with data from previous surveys. The statistical error of these studies for a selection of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed: 3.4% for indicators around 50%; 2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%; 2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%; 1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%.

DO YOU THINK THAT RUSSIA CURRENTLY HAS ANY ENEMIES? (single answer)

  Yes No It is difficult to say
Dec. 17 66 21 13
Dec. 16 68 18 14
Sept. 15 80 10 10
Sept. 14 84 8 8
Nov. 13 78 13 9
Oct. 12 63 18 19
Aug. 11 64 22 14
Jan. 11 70 19 11
Aug. 09 69 18 14
Aug. 08 68 14 18
Aug. 03 77 9 14
Mar. 99 65 14 22
Apr. 96 75 9 16
Apr. 94 41 22 37

WHO WOULD YOU SAY ARE RUSSIA’S ENEMIES? (this question was asked only to those respondents who thought that Russia has enemies; the respondents could give more than one answer and named enemies themselves without being shown a card or being given suggestions by the interviewer; ranked in descending order according to December 2017)

  Mar. 99 Aug. 03 Aug. 08 Aug. 09 Jan. 11 Oct. 12 Dec. 17
USA 22 31 51 51 40 56 68
Ukraine 29
Europe/the European Union/the West/particular EU countries 14
Former Soviet Republics (the Baltics, Georgia, etc.)/(the political leaders of former Soviet Republics) 9 4 27 38 18 14 10
Poland/(former Eastern Bloc countries: Hungary, the Czech Republic, etc.)** 5 7 9 3 8
Germany 6
NATO 19 11 39 34 32 35 6
England 6
Radical Islamists, supporters of Islamic extremism, ISIS 10 17 15 27 20 5
Middle Eastern countries 4
Those currently in power/government officials/the government/”Putin’s friends” 7 7 7 10 4
Terrorism/terrorists 61 3
East Asian countries 3
Corruption 3
Oligarchs, bankers 17 20 19 19 20 14 2
China 8 13 13 11 2
The political opposition/the fifth column/Navalny 2
Russophobes, Western sympathizers 3 2 4 2 6 4 1
Putin/the president 1
Liberals 3 2 1 2 1
Particular Western political forces/(Western industrial/financial circles)*** 28 19 30 <1
Zionists 7 4 5 4 8 5 <1
Nationalists 7 5 3 2 5 4 <1
Chechen militants/the North Caucasus 69 45 47 48 39 <1
Communists 8 4 4 3 2 3 <1
Seperatists within Russia 13 10 15 9 <1
Democrats, reformers 15 2 5 3 4 2 <1
We are our own worst enemy 1
Everyone is our enemy 3
Other 4 2 2 2 1 2 5
It is difficult to say 30 3 5 5 3 5 6

*In 1999 and 2003; **2008-2012; ***1999 and 2003, the positions were stated differently (shown in parentheses after a slash).

From 1999 through 2011, the question about enemies included a card that was either presented by the interviewer during the interview, or was included with surveys that were to be filled out independently. These results can therefore only be compared with the data from 2012 and 2017 under certain conditions. 

WITH WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS DO YOU MOST AGREE? (respondents were presented with a card; single answer)

  Dec. 89 Mar. 94 Jan. 11 Mar. 14 Dec. 17
Our country is surrounded by enemies on all sides 4 7 18 26 23
Our most dangerous enemies are those who are hidden within the country 22 16 28 20 21
Any country on the path to revitalization will have enemies 17 11 21 30 27
There is no need to seek out enemies—the cause of our misfortune is our own mistakes 48 44 19 17 16
It is difficult to say 14 21 14 7 13

DO YOU THINK THERE IS ANY REASON FOR NATO COUNTRIES TO FEAR RUSSIA? (single answer)

  Apr. 97 Aug. 00 Feb. 01 Feb. 02 Apr. 06 Jun. 06 Apr. 07 Jul. 08 Mar. 14 Nov. 15 Nov. 16 Dec. 17
Definitely 11 8 8 7 9 10 7 12 14 13 10 14
Probably 16 20 16 22 25 21 21 21 30 26 27 27
Probably not 32 38 40 38 37 38 33 36 30 30 29 33
Definitely not 27 19 25 20 20 22 24 24 15 21 23 16
It is difficult to say 13 14 12 14 9 10 15 8 10 10 10 11

DO YOU THINK THERE IS ANY REASON FOR RUSSIA TO FEAR NATO COUNTRIES? (single answer)

  Apr. 97 Mar. 99 May 99 Aug. 00 Feb. 01 Feb. 02 Apr. 06 Jun. 06 Apr. 07 Jul. 08 Mar. 09 Mar. 11 Mar. 14 Nov. 15 Nov. 16 Dec. 17
Definitely 26 27 27 16 25 14 15 22 14 23 22 21 17 16 15 17
Probably 34 37 36 38 33 42 43 40 35 39 40 42 45 38 42 40
Probably not 18 23 22 25 22 23 26 22 27 21 21 21 22 26 24 24
Definitely not 9 6 7 7 8 7 8 7 8 8 6 3 5 10 7 6
It is difficult to say 13 9 10 14 13 14 9 10 16 10 12 12 11 11 12 13

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly Monterey Institute of International Studies).

The ANO Levada Center has been forcibly included in the registry of non-commercial organizations acting as foreign agents.  Read the Director of the Levada Center’s statement of disagreement with this decision here.