This survey took place between December 1-5, 2017 and was conducted throughout all of Russia in both urban and rural settings. The survey was carried out among 1600 people over the age of 18 in 137 localities of 48 of the country’s regions. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the number of participants along with data from previous surveys. The statistical error of these studies for a selection of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed: 3.4% for indicators around 50%; 2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%; 2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%; 1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%.
DO YOU THINK THAT RUSSIA CURRENTLY HAS ANY ENEMIES? (single answer)
|Yes||No||It is difficult to say|
WHO WOULD YOU SAY ARE RUSSIA’S ENEMIES? (this question was asked only to those respondents who thought that Russia has enemies; the respondents could give more than one answer and named enemies themselves without being shown a card or being given suggestions by the interviewer; ranked in descending order according to December 2017)
|Mar. 99||Aug. 03||Aug. 08||Aug. 09||Jan. 11||Oct. 12||Dec. 17|
|Europe/the European Union/the West/particular EU countries||–||–||–||–||–||–||14|
|Former Soviet Republics (the Baltics, Georgia, etc.)/(the political leaders of former Soviet Republics)||9||4||27||38||18||14||10|
|Poland/(former Eastern Bloc countries: Hungary, the Czech Republic, etc.)**||–||–||5||7||9||3||8|
|Radical Islamists, supporters of Islamic extremism, ISIS||10||–||17||15||27||20||5|
|Middle Eastern countries||–||–||–||–||–||–||4|
|Those currently in power/government officials/the government/”Putin’s friends”||–||–||7||7||7||10||4|
|East Asian countries||–||–||–||–||–||–||3|
|The political opposition/the fifth column/Navalny||–||–||–||–||–||–||2|
|Russophobes, Western sympathizers||3||2||4||2||6||4||1|
|Particular Western political forces/(Western industrial/financial circles)***||–||–||28||19||30||–||<1|
|Chechen militants/the North Caucasus||–||69||45||47||48||39||<1|
|Seperatists within Russia||–||–||13||10||15||9||<1|
|We are our own worst enemy||–||–||–||–||–||–||1|
|Everyone is our enemy||–||–||–||–||–||–||3|
|It is difficult to say||30||3||5||5||3||5||6|
*In 1999 and 2003; **2008-2012; ***1999 and 2003, the positions were stated differently (shown in parentheses after a slash).
From 1999 through 2011, the question about enemies included a card that was either presented by the interviewer during the interview, or was included with surveys that were to be filled out independently. These results can therefore only be compared with the data from 2012 and 2017 under certain conditions.
WITH WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS DO YOU MOST AGREE? (respondents were presented with a card; single answer)
|Dec. 89||Mar. 94||Jan. 11||Mar. 14||Dec. 17|
|Our country is surrounded by enemies on all sides||4||7||18||26||23|
|Our most dangerous enemies are those who are hidden within the country||22||16||28||20||21|
|Any country on the path to revitalization will have enemies||17||11||21||30||27|
|There is no need to seek out enemies—the cause of our misfortune is our own mistakes||48||44||19||17||16|
|It is difficult to say||14||21||14||7||13|
DO YOU THINK THERE IS ANY REASON FOR NATO COUNTRIES TO FEAR RUSSIA? (single answer)
|Apr. 97||Aug. 00||Feb. 01||Feb. 02||Apr. 06||Jun. 06||Apr. 07||Jul. 08||Mar. 14||Nov. 15||Nov. 16||Dec. 17|
|It is difficult to say||13||14||12||14||9||10||15||8||10||10||10||11|
DO YOU THINK THERE IS ANY REASON FOR RUSSIA TO FEAR NATO COUNTRIES? (single answer)
|Apr. 97||Mar. 99||May 99||Aug. 00||Feb. 01||Feb. 02||Apr. 06||Jun. 06||Apr. 07||Jul. 08||Mar. 09||Mar. 11||Mar. 14||Nov. 15||Nov. 16||Dec. 17|
|It is difficult to say||13||9||10||14||13||14||9||10||16||10||12||12||11||11||12||13|
Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly Monterey Institute of International Studies).
The ANO Levada Center has been forcibly included in the registry of non-commercial organizations acting as foreign agents. Read the Director of the Levada Center’s statement of disagreement with this decision here.