The majority of respondents consider themselves to be Orthodox Christians, 15% do not consider themselves to be of any religion. More than half of Russians consider themselves religious. Respondents’ belief in the supernatural (life after death, religious miracles, the evil eye) remains a common phenomenon.

71% of respondents identify themselves as Orthodox, 5% as Muslims and about 3% as other religions (primarily Catholicism, Protestantism and Buddhism). Another 15% of respondents do not consider themselves to be of any religion and about 4% call themselves atheists.

Over the past couple of years, the number of Russians who do not attend religious services has grown noticeably; today there are about 43% of them. At the same time, about 9% of respondents attend religious services more or less regularly (the total number of those who attend services at least once a month), this indicator has decreased in recent years.

Slightly more than half (53%) of respondents consider themselves religious people: 9% – very religious (which more or less coincides with the number of those who regularly attend religious services), 44% – religious to some extent. A third define themselves as not too religious, 16% – as completely non-religious. This ratio has remained more or less constant in recent years.

Religious faith is combined in the minds of many with a belief in the supernatural.

Slightly more than half (51%) of respondents are inclined to believe that the Kingdom of Heaven exists: 27% are sure of it, 24% believe that it most likely exists. 14% believe that it most likely does not exist, a quarter do not believe in it.

About half of respondents (51%) consider religious miracles possible: 27% believe in them, another 24% think that they most likely exist.

The existence of the evil eye and bad spells is considered possible by 51% of respondents: 29% believe in them, 22% believe that they most likely exist. 43% of respondents do not believe in them.


The survey by the Levada Center was conducted April 21 – 27 2022, among a representative sample of all Russian urban and rural residents. The sample was comprised of 1616 people aged 18 or older in 137 municipalities of 50 regions of the Russian Federation. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the total number of participants along with data from previous surveys.

The statistical error of these studies for a sample of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:

3.4% for indicators around 50%

2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%

2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%

1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%

The ANO Levada Center is included in the registry of non-commercial organizations acting as foreign agents.


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