Press-releases

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

This survey was carried out December 12–18, 2019 with a representative sample of all Russian urban and rural residents. The sample comprised 1608 people age 18 or older from 137 localities in 50 regions of the Russian Federation. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the number of participants along with data from previous surveys.

The statistical error of these studies for a selection of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:

3.4% for indicators around 50%
2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%
2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%
1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%

IN YOUR OPINION, WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING GLOBAL THREATS FACING HUMANITY IN THE 21st CENTURY ARE THE MOST DANGEROUS? (respondents were presented with a card with a list of answers from which they could choose more than one answer and/or write in their own; answers ranked in descending order according to December 2019)

Dec. 19
Environmental pollution 48
International terrorism 42
Armed conflicts, wars 37
Climate change, global warming 34
Human-caused catastrophes and accidents 31
Nuclear weapons proliferation and the threat of their use 25
Global economic crisis 25
Global epidemics, novel diseases 24
Hacker attacks, cybercrime, data leaks 18
Shortages of food and potable water 16
Overpopulation and large-scale migration 15
Reduction in energy resources 12
Widening rift between developed and developing countries 9
Other (“meteor,” “alcoholism and drug addition,” “low wages unemployment,” etc.) 1
It is difficult to say 3

IN YOUR OPINION, WHICH ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM LISTED ON THIS CARD IS CURRENTLY THE MOST SERIOUS FOR RUSSIA AS A WHOLE? (respondents were given an answer card from which they could choose only one answer; answers ranked in descending order according to December 2019)

Dec. 10 Dec. 19
Air pollution 29 26
Household waste management 8 17
Nuclear waste 8 11
Natural resource exhaustion 7 9
Genetically modified food products 9 9
Water pollution 15 9
Climate change 8 7
Chemicals and pesticides 7 7
Water shortages 4 2
None of the above 1 2
It is difficult to say 4 3

DO ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS HAVE A DIRECT EFFECT ON YOU AND YOUR FAMILY? IF YES, WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS MOST AFFECTS YOU AND YOUR FAMILY? (respondents were given an answer card from which they could choose only one answer; answers ranked in descending order according to December 2019)

Dec. 10 Dec. 19
Air pollution 16 25
Water pollution 19 15
Genetically modified food products 12 12
Household waste management 10 11
Climate change 10 7
Chemicals and pesticides 7 6
Natural resource exhaustion 7 4
Nuclear waste 6 3
Water shortages 5 2
None of the above 3 14
It is difficult to say 5 2

Answer distribution in relation to the type of residential area
(ranked in descending order according to the “Moscow” column) 

… MOST AFFECTS YOU AND YOUR FAMILY? Moscow Over 500,000 From 100,000 to 500,000 Cities pop. less than 100,000 Village
Air pollution 35 30 24 25 19
Household waste management 16 9 12 9 13
Genetically modified food products 14 12 11 11 12
Chemicals and pesticides 8 6 3 5 6
Water pollution 6 17 18 14 14
Climate change 3 7 5 9 7
Natural resource exhaustion 3 3 2 6 3
Nuclear waste 1 2 4 4 3
Water shortages 1 1 1 3 2
None of the above 13 10 19 13 17
It is difficult to say <1 2 3 1 4

TODAY SCIENTISTS ARGUE ABOUT THE CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING. SOME CONNECT IT TO HUMAN ACTIVITIES; OTHERS TALK OF NATURAL CAUSES FOR THIS PROCESS. IN YOUR OPINION, WHAT HAS THE GREATEST EFFECT ON THE GENERAL TEMPERATURE INCREASE OF OUR PLANET’S ENVIRONMENT? (one answer) 

Dec. 19
It is result of pollution caused by human activities 67
It is a result of natural processes that are not related to human activities 25
It is difficult to say 7

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly Monterey Institute of International Studies).

The ANO Levada Center has been included in the registry of non-commercial organizations acting as foreign agents. Read the Director of the Levada Center’s statement of disagreement with this decision here.