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Attitudes toward countries

This survey was conducted August 20–26, 2020, among a representative sample of all Russian urban and rural residents. The sample was comprised of 1601 people aged 18 or older in 137 municipalities of 50 regions of the Russian Federation. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the total number of participants along with data from previous surveys.

The statistical error of these studies for a sample of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:

3.4% for indicators around 50%
2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%
2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%
1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%

NAME FIVE COUNTRIES WHICH YOU CONSIDER TO BE RUSSIA’S CLOSEST FRIENDS, ALLIES? (respondents were shown a card with a list of countries and could choose several countries; responses shown in descending order from 2020 results; the table lists countries with ≥1.5% of responses in August 2020)

2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Belarus 47 38 50 49 35 34 46 51 55 50 46 49 62 58
China 24 19 18 16 18 16 20 40 43 34 39 40 42 40
Kazakhstan 33 39 38 32 33 28 31 37 41 39 34 32 38 35
Armenia 14 15 15 15 11 11 12 15 18 13 12 11 22 17
Azerbaijan 7 5 10 8 9 9 8 9 11 7 9 8 16 13
India 15 14 12 14 16 9 7 13 18 18 14 19 14 13
Syria 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 10 15 21 14 12
Venezuela 2 8 10 6 5 6 5 9 6 3 4 11 11
Germany 22 24 17 24 20 17 14 4 2 2 2 5 9 10
Kyrgyzstan 7 7 9 4 6 5 5 6 10 7 8 8 9 9
Cuba 8 11 10 13 8 9 10 14 10 11 11 9 9
Uzbekistan 6 6 9 5 7 5 5 6 8 9 9 11 9 9
Vietnam 4 4 5 10 7
Turkey 3 3 4 5 7 4 5 4 8 1 6 9 9 7
Bulgaria 10 9 9 8 9 7 10 8 4 4 4 7 8 6
Georgia 3 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 2 4 3 8 6
Serbia 4 3 5 5 4 4 3 5 8 6 5 6 6 6
Tajikistan 3 7 9 4 5 4 5 8 7 6 9 7 6 5
Israel 3 3 3 4 5 4 3 4 2 3 3 3 4 4
Iran 4 3 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 4 5 4 4
Italy 7 8 5 8 6 7 5 3 1 3 3 3 3 4
North Korea 3 2 1 2 4 1 1 3 3 3 3 4 6 4
Ukraine 10 11 3 20 21 13 16 1 1 2 2 1 3 4
Brazil 5 2 3 3 3
Greece 4 3 3 5 3
Egypt 1 2 2 2 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4 5 3
Moldova 4 4 5 5 4 4 6 7 2 2 8 4 3 3
Mongolia 3 5 4 5 2 3 3 6 3 3 4 2 3
South Korea 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 3
Japan 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 2 5 4 7 6 3
Austria 1 1 1 4 2
Hungary 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
Poland 4 3 2 5 3 3 4 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
Turkmenistan 2 8 5 1 3 2 2 3 4 2 4 3 2 2
Finland 6 6 5 5 7 6 4 3 1 1 1 2 2 2
France 8 9 9 11 9 9 4 1 1 2 2 4 2 2
Czech Republic 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 2 2 2
None 13 10 13 11 11 17 15 13 11 14 12 10 4 6
It is difficult to say 15 18 14 12 15 18 14 16 14 11 14 10 7 7

WHICH FIVE COUNTRIES WOULD YOU SAY ARE MOST UNFRIENDLY, HOSTILE TOWARDS RUSSIA? (respondents were shown a card with a list of countries and could choose several countries; responses shown in descending order from 2020 results; the table lists countries with ≥1.5% of responses in August 2020)

  2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
USA 37 35 45 26 33 35 38 69 73 72 69 78 67 60
Ukraine 27 23 41 13 20 15 11 30 37 48 50 49 40 35
Great Britain 5 3 8 6 8 7 9 18 21 18 15 38 38 29
Latvia 46 36 35 36 35 26 21 23 25 23 24 26 27 26
Lithuania 42 32 35 35 34 25 17 24 25 23 24 23 26 26
Poland 7 20 10 14 20 8 8 12 22 24 21 24 22 26
Georgia 44 46 62 57 50 41 33 19 11 10 9 8 11 16
Germany 2 2 3 1 4 3 3 18 19 19 24 17 18 15
Estonia 28 60 30 28 30 23 16 21 19 16 16 15 12 11
Afghanistan 12 11 7 14 15 8 10 5 4 2 3 3 4 7
Canada 1 <1 1 <1 1 1 1 7 8 6 3 8 9 7
Iraq 9 8 5 9 9 8 7 3 2 2 3 4 5 6
Iran 7 7 3 7 7 7 5 2 2 2 2 2 3 4
Syria <1 <1 <1 <1 1 2 3 1 1 3 4 4 4 4
Japan 4 3 3 3 9 6 7 5 6 5 6 3 4 4
Israel 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 5 4 3
China 3 3 4 4 4 5 1 <1 1 2 1 3 3
Turkey 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 29 8 3 2 3
France 1 1 1 <1 1 1 2 5 7 4 8 8 8 3
Australia <1 <1 <1 <1 1 <1 <1 1 3 2 1 1 2 2
Bulgaria 1 1 <1 <1 2 <1 <1 <1 1 1 <1 1 2 2
Holland 1 1 1 1 2
Italy <1 <1 1 <1 <1 1 <1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2
Pakistan <1 1 1 2 2
Romania 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2
Saudi Arabia 1 <1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2
North Korea <1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 2 2 2 2
Azerbaijan 4 4 2 3 5 2 4 2 1 2 1 1 1 2
Armenia 3 2 1 3 4 1 1 <1 1 1 <1 1 1 2
Belarus 2 5 2 3 8 3 2 <1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Vietnam <1 <1 <1 1 2
Czech Republic 1 2 1 <1 1 1 <1 1 2 1 <1 1 1 2
Hungary 1 <1 <1 1 1 1 <1 1 <1 <1 1 1 1 2
None 4 2 3 4 14 7 7 3 3 5 3 2 3 7
It is difficult to say 19 17 15 17 1 21 24 17 14 10 11 10 7 7

OVERALL, WHAT IS YOUR CURRENT ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE UNITED STATES? (one answer)*

  Jan 18 Feb 19 May 19 Aug 19 Nov 19 Jan 20 Aug 20
Very positive 2 4 4 4 7 4 6
Generally positive 23 30 27 38 40 38 36
Generally negative 32 29 32 25 26 28 26
Very negative 20 27 20 19 15 18 20
It is difficult to say 22 11 16 14 13 12 12

 OVERALL, WHAT IS YOUR CURRENT ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE EUROPEAN UNION? (one answer)*

  Jan 18 Feb 19 May 19 Aug 19 Nov 19 Jan 20 Aug 20
Very positive 3 5 4 5 7 5 7
Generally positive 29 37 33 45 45 44 41
Generally negative 33 30 30 23 24 26 26
Very negative 13 15 14 11 10 11 13
It is difficult to say 22 13 19 17 15 15 13

 *These questions were not administered February–July 2020.

OVERALL, WHAT IS YOUR CURRENT ATTITUDE TOWARDS BELARUS? (one answer)

  Feb 19 May 19 Aug 20
Very positive 32 28 34
Generally positive 55 56 51
Generally negative 4 6 6
Very negative 2 2 2
It is difficult to say 7 9 7

 IN YOUR OPINION, WHAT SHOULD BE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RUSSIA AND BELARUS? (one answer)**

  Dec 19 Aug 20
Russia and Belarus should more actively develop economic cooperation 44 41
Russia and Belarus should maintain current relations 28 32
Russia and Belarus should form a closer alliance with unified leadership at the head 13 11
Belarus should become a part of the Russian Federation 10 13
It is difficult to say 5 4

**This question was presented as follows: “ON DECEMBER 7TH, TALKS WERE HELD BETWEEN VLADIMIR PUTIN AND ALEXANDER LUKASHENKO. IN YOUR OPINION, WHAT SHOULD BE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RUSSIA AND BELARUS?”

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly Monterey Institute of International Studies).

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