Press-releases

ENEMIES

This survey was conducted September 25–30, 2020, among a representative sample of all Russian urban and rural residents. The sample was comprised of 1605 people aged 18 or older in 137 municipalities of 50 regions of the Russian Federation. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the total number of participants along with data from previous surveys.

The statistical error of these studies for a sample of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:

3.4% for indicators around 50%
2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%
2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%
1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%

IN YOUR OPINION, DOES MODERN RUSSIA HAVE ENEMIES? (one answer)

  Yes No It is difficult to say
Sep 20 82 13 5
May 19 80 15 5
Nov 18 81 13 6
Dec 17 66 21 13
Dec 16 68 18 14
Sep 15 80 10 10
Sep 14 84 8 8
Nov 13 78 13 9
Oct 12 63 18 19
Aug 11 64 22 14
Jan 11 70 19 11
Aug 09 69 18 14
Aug 08 68 14 18
Aug 03 77 9 14
Mar 99 65 14 22
Apr 96 75 9 16
Apr 94 41 22 37

WHO WOULD YOU SAY ARE ENEMIES OF RUSSIA? (this question was only posed to respondents who think Russia has enemies; respondents named enemies THEMSELVES, without a card with lists of responses, and could name more than one; in descending order; the table lists enemies with ≥0.5% of responses)*

  Sep 20
USA (America) 70
Ukraine 14
Great Britain (England) 10
European Union (Europe) 7
Poland 7
The West 5
Germany 5
Baltics (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia) 5
China 4
NATO 3
Everyone, the entire world, foreigners 3
Our authorities, the government, higher-ups, the State Duma, the United Russia Party, bureaucrats 3
France 2
Turkey 2
ISIS, Islamic groups, Islamic terrorists 2
Japan 1
We are our own enemies 1
Corruption 1
Canada 1
Putin 1
Belarus 1
Asian countries 1
Syria 1
Trump 1
The opposition, liberals, the fifth column 1
Armenia 1
Other countries 1
Other answers 5
It is difficult to say/no answer 8

*The Levada Center conducts a separate survey about countries that are “friends” and “enemies” of Russia, which can be accessed here.  Based on the results of the survey in August 2020, the USA, Ukraine, and Great Britain are at the top of the list of states that, according to respondents’ opinion, are unfriendly towards Russia as well.

Trends in the top 5 answers
(based on the responses to the open question, “Who would you say are enemies of Russia?”)

  Dec 17   Nov 18   Sep 20
USA 68 USA 70 USA 70
Ukraine 29 Ukraine 34 Ukraine 14
European Union 14 Great Britain 14 Great Britain 10
Former USSR republics, including the Baltics 10 European Union 9 European Union 7
Poland 8 Japan 5 Poland 7

Translated by Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (formerly Monterey Institute of International Studies).

The ANO Levada Center has been included in the registry of non-commercial organizations acting as foreign agents. Read the Director of the Levada Center’s statement of disagreement with this decision here.