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Attitude towards countries and their citizens

Negative assessments continue to prevail in relation to the USA, the EU, Estonia and Ukraine. The attitude towards Georgia and Turkey is mostly positive (with a noticeable share of negative assessments). Respondents have a positive attitude towards China and Belarus. The attitude to the citizens of these countries is better than to each country individually.

Respondents were asked to assess their attitude towards countries and associations from the following list: USA, EU, Estonia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus, China and Turkey. The respondents relate best to China and Belarus. Although a positive attitude prevails towards Turkey and Georgia, a significant number of respondents have a negative attitude. A negative attitude prevails towards Western countries and Ukraine, which is explained by the current conflict.

The attitude of Russians towards the United States remains negative. In recent months, the hostility has only slightly weakened. The share of positive assessments in August was 19% (in May – 14%) of respondents, negative — 71% (in May – 75%, treated the United States worse only in 2015). Just like earlier, younger generations have the best attitude towards the US: 25% of respondents aged 18-24 and 28% aged 25-39. The following age groups are the worst: 15% of respondents aged 40-54 are positive, 72% are negative; 11% of respondents 55 years and older are positive, 82% are negative.

Attitude to the US

 
Positive
Negative
Difficult to answer
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Also, in recent months, the negative attitude towards the European Union has somewhat weakened. 23% (in May – 16%) of respondents feel good about the EU, 65% feel bad (in May – 69%, which was also one of the peak values). Also, in recent months, the negative attitude towards the European Union has somewhat weakened. 23% (in May – 16%) of respondents feel good about the EU, 65% feel bad (in May – 69%, which was also one of the peak values). The age distribution repeats the nature of the attitude towards the United States. Young people aged 18-24 have the best attitude towards the European Union (42%), the worst – respondents 55 years and older (14% positive, 77% negative).

Attitude to the EU

 
Positive
Negative
Difficult to answer
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The attitude towards Ukraine remains consistently bad: 23% of respondents treat this country well, 66% – badly. Over the past months, respondents’ estimates have not changed. In relation to Ukraine, a more positive attitude prevails in young groups: 34% in the 18-24 group and 31% in the 25-39 group treat Ukraine well. In the groups of 40-54 years and 55 years and older, only 21% and 15%, respectively, feel good about Ukraine.

Attitude to Ukraine

 
Positive
Negative
Difficult to answer
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The attitude towards Estonia has deteriorated significantly since the last measurement, which was carried out even before the start of the current conflict: for example, the share of negative assessments was 57% (in October 2021 – 10%), and the share of positive ones decreased to 29% (in October 2021 – 72%). For Estonia, as well as for other Western countries, there is a difference in age groups. Approximately half of the respondents aged 18-24 and 25-39 are well-disposed towards this country, while respondents aged 40-54 and 55 and older have a negative attitude.

The attitude towards Georgia has improved a little since August last year: the share of positive assessments today is 57%, negative – 29%. A positive attitude towards Georgia prevails among all age groups. The largest share (76%). Those who treat Germany well are distributed among Russians aged 18-24.

Compared to the end of 2020 (when this question was last asked), the attitude towards Turkey has significantly improved: if 48% of respondents treated it well then, 36% treated it badly, then in August of this year – 68% and 20%, respectively. A positive attitude towards Turkey prevails among all age groups. The youngest respondents – 18-24 years old – have the best attitude.

The attitude of Russians towards Belarus traditionally remains at a high level: 88% have a good attitude to it, only 7% think of it poorly.

Russians have become somewhat better about China: in March, 83% were treated well, 8% — badly, in August — 88% and 5%, respectively. Against the background of the conflict with Ukraine and the West, the attitude towards China reached peak values in August.

Attitude towards citizens of some countries

Respondents were asked to assess their attitude towards residents of four countries from the list: Belarusians, Ukrainians, Chinese and Americans. In relation to the citizens of these countries, the same hierarchy is observed as in relation to the countries themselves. However, the attitude towards citizens is noticeably better than towards countries as a whole.

So, with a sharply negative attitude towards the United States and Ukraine, the attitude towards Americans and Ukrainians is ambiguous. About half of the respondents (48%) have a good attitude towards Americans, 68% towards Ukrainians. 40% and 23% demonstrate a negative attitude, respectively. There are no significant differences in the age groups.

If in December 2016 77% of respondents treated the Chinese well, 13% treated them badly, then in August of this year – 86% and 6%, respectively. 92% of respondents have a positive attitude towards Belarusians. There have been no significant changes in 16 years.

METHODOLOGY

The survey by the Levada Center was conducted August 25 – 31 2022, among a representative sample of all Russian urban and rural residents. The sample was comprised of 1612 people aged 18 or older in 137 municipalities of 50 regions of the Russian Federation. The survey was conducted as a personal interview in respondents’ homes. The answer distribution is presented as percentages of the total number of participants along with data from previous surveys.

The statistical error of these studies for a sample of 1600 people (with a probability of 0.95) does not exceed:

3.4% for indicators around 50%

2.9% for indicators around 25%/75%

2.0% for indicators around 10%/90%

1.5% for indicators around 5%/95%

The ANO Levada Center is included in the registry of non-commercial organizations acting as foreign agents.

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